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#1930530 - 05/19/17 06:14 PM 借兵~(常人勿近,純粹kuso舒發一下,想聽聽不一樣的意見)
文茂 離線
見龍在田
註冊: 01/15/14
文章數: 60
如果你是身處春秋戰國時期魯國的國君,國力貧瘠,外交受制魏楚齊三國
你會如何選擇走未來的路?附庸齊國??魏國?楚國,還是斡旋於三者之間???(如同真田昌幸一般?)亦或是想辦法躍升成為大國??

就算孔老夫子是大才,但與其他人格格不入,你敢用嗎??又要怎用??還是老王賣瓜自賣自誇??人才凋零??還是人材裹足不前??究竟為什麼沒有人要來呢??

良將最怕無兵可用,那要怎樣才能在軍紀,軍力裝備上做調整.
魯國到滅亡之前..還有機會改變一切嗎??

不知道為什麼總覺得自己是個瘋子,真的很喜歡從歷史去看這些東西.

最後...這個魯國如果意指自己的人生...你又會如何看待??
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廣告
#1930616 - 05/20/17 09:44 AM 一場閑富貴,狠狠爭來,雖得還是失。 百歲好光陰,忙忙過了,縱壽亦為夭。~菜根譚 [Re: 文茂]
rblin 離線
萬事如意
註冊: 02/04/01
文章數: 16273

佛教對於幸福收入悖論的解决方案
釋定弘 敬述

幸福收入悖論
  西方新古典經濟學認為,個人幸福度(效用)會隨收入增加而增加。這一假設曾被整個經濟學界所接受,並不斷推動每一個經濟體(個人或企業)不知疲倦地積累收入,人們傾向於用貨幣收入来評價他們的幸福水平。政府領導人也普遍認為,一個國家可以通過不斷地提高人均國内生產總值而使人民變得更幸福。企業領導受大多數商學院教科書誤導,認為企業的目標是使財富最大化。但結果是,在上個世紀,當人類財富大幅增加時,環境破壞和經濟危機所引起的痛苦,抵消了財富增加所带来的微不足道的社會幸福度。

  理查德·伊斯特林(1974年)提出的著名悖論稱,在美國,隨着時間的推移,社會没有因財富的增加而變得更幸福。其他條件相同情况下,當一個人的收入達到一定水平(在2005年的價格為20,000美元)時,幸福度只會有少許增加。經濟學上稱這種現象為收入的邊際遞减效應,意味着不斷增長的經濟不會提高社會的幸福度。
  
  但這並不是說,經濟增長是绝對不必要的,只是不應當在破壞社會和諧、經濟穩定以及全球生態系統和世界氣候的情况下,追求經濟的增長。心理學家反復觀察發現,同那些不重視收入的人群相比,通常太過重視入的人群反而缺乏快樂,同時也更容易受到其他心理疾病的影響。也就是說,雖然收入可能在某種程度上提高幸福感,但人類對收入和財富的執著,實際上會降低人的幸福感。
  
  佛陀主張在禁欲苦行和追求物質享受之間尋求中道。收入對幸福而言固然重要,但在滿足基本需要之後,對幸福度的貢獻而言,内心的平靜與和諧比增加收入更重要。佛教教育為幸福度與收入悖論提供了理想的解决方案。

教理闡述
  根據佛教教義,苦来自於不斷地追求物質欲望的滿足。人類所有的罪業都源於執著有「我」。小乘佛法教導我們,人的身體是四大元素的假合: 地(代表骨、肉等)、水(代表體内血液)、火(代表體温)、風(代表呼吸)。

  大乘佛教指出,整個宇宙,包括我們生活的環境及我們自己本身,就像一個夢,從未發生過,而明了這個事實的過程叫做覺悟。一個覺悟的人會自然地放棄自私自利的行為,而去做完全為大眾(利他)的事業。因此,西方經濟學中所謂的「理性行為」,目標指向利己主義,在佛教看来,反而是「非理性」的行為。

解决辦法
  尋求真正的幸福,不僅促使2561年前釋迦牟尼佛放棄王位,而且也是上世紀西方經濟學蓬勃發展的動力。當西方經濟學家認為人們需要通過獲得更多的收入才能獲得幸福時,釋迦牟尼佛採取了一種完全不同的方式,最終獲得了終極幸福。佛陀在三十歲時解脱所有的苦難而成就道業,之後他傾其一生,教導所有眾生如何獲得最終的幸福。他教導世人,一個人通過摒棄貪、瞋、痴,可以解脱並獲得真正的幸福,即離苦得樂。

  釋迦牟尼佛勸誡我們用「三學」来訓練我們的行為和思想,即戒律、禪定(三摩地)和智慧(般若)。持戒有助於從根本上剷除惡因。

禪定修習指一個人通過正思維清除不善念,例如,當我們坐禪時,可以先觀照我們的呼吸,以提高我們的專注力。然後觀照身體、情緒和念頭的變化。通過不斷的練習,我們可以體悟到無常、苦、空的真義。欲望和執著也會逐漸消除。

  智慧能幫助我們看透宇宙真相。宇宙是我們自心所變現的,它就像鏡子,原本空無一物,只因人的業力不同而顯示不同的境界。所有事物現象都隨着我們的念頭不斷變化,即境隨心轉。因此,宇宙中一切有情與無情在一瞬間,只是人的心念的顯現。一切即一!

  大乘佛法勸導我們,應當培养對眾生無條件的愛心與慈悲,應該努力幫助眾生離苦,也就是無緣大慈、同體大悲。這種普世的慈悲情懷,是大乘佛教所倡導的菩提心的重要組成部分。我們通過不斷地貢獻社會、服務眾生,可以逐漸去除我執,獲得至高的幸福。

  覺悟和修行水平决定了幸福水平的高低。因此,佛教在幫助人們認識什麼是真正的幸福和如何追求真正幸福方面,扮演着重要角色。如果佛教教義得到正信地傳播,利他主義的價值觀就能够成為主導,無論貧富,幸福感都會得到增長。

案例分析
  中國廣東省東莞市泰威電子有限公司已在利他主義價值觀方面做出了一個成功的嘗試。2015年開始,董事會通過了一項名為51-25-24股利分配方案。該公司將公司51%的分紅捐給内部慈善基金會,該基金會有以下用途:(i)改善公司職工的生活水平,如提供免費有機素食,(ii)做社會慈善工作,及(iii)弘扬佛教與中國傳統道德文化。其餘49%的分紅會按51:49比例分給公司的員工和所有人。剩下的49%的分紅中的51%,也就是總分紅的25%,會給予員工。公司老板只收最後24%的分紅。通過給予員工財務獎勵,公司的所有者成為了放棄自己利益的模範領導者,其工作主要是為了員工和社會謀取利益。因此,公司員工的積極性得到充分調動,愿意把自己當成公司的一份子。公司讓員工享受免費有機膳食,員工感受到真正的關懷和家一般的温暖,員工工作也更加有責任感、更加自律和主動,公司的管理成本大大降低。通過這個新的紅利分配方案,2016年泰威電子有限公司的利潤增長了50%。如今,這項51-25-24股利分配方案已被中國許多公司複製。這一案例表明,當企業家踐行愛心和慈悲濟世的理念,公司内部和外部的所有利益相關者,都會受益並變得更快樂。這樣的利他主義的框架一旦構建成功,將會產生一種低成本、和諧和環保的經濟效果。

結論
  經濟學家已經觀察到的這一悖論,即當人們的收入超過某一基準時,繼續增加的收入並不能增加人們的幸福度。如果過分追求收入,最終會使人失去幸福,同時也會惡化人際關係、自然環境。佛教崇尚少欲知足,這是改善幸福度的一個理想的解决方案。當我們心懷愛心並擺脫自私時,就可以獲得更高層次的内在幸福,並不需要依賴於收入。如果佛教教育在整個社會盛行,社會將獲得極大的幸福度。

(本文由中國廣東省汕尾市覺源寺首座法師、靈峰佛陀教育弘化基金會董事主席定弘法師發表於斯里蘭卡科倫坡聯合國衛塞節研討會。)

參考資料
伊斯特林·理查德:1974年,「經濟增長改善了人類的命运嗎?」出處:《國家和家庭的經濟增長:摩西阿布拉莫維茨紀念論文集》,作者保羅 A. 戴維、梅爾文W.瑞德,紐約學術出版社

講稿 英文版
Buddhist Solution to the Happiness-Income Paradox
Shi Ding Hong

The Paradox
The western neoclassical economics is built on the assumption that individual’s happiness (utility) increases with income. This assumption has been accepted by the entire economic world and keeps driving every economic agent (individual or firm) to tirelessly accumulate income. People tend to evaluate their happiness level using monetary income. Government leaders widely believe that a country can become happier through continuous stimulation of Gross Domestic Product per capita. Company leaders are misled by most business textbooks that the goal of firm is to maximize owners’ wealth. As a result, while humanity’s wealth has increased substantially in the last century, the increased sufferings induced by the environmental damages and economic crises have offset the insignificant increase in the society’s happiness.

The famous paradox noted by Richard Easterlin (1974) in the U.S. was that over time the society did not become happier as it became richer. When an individual’s income reaches a certain level (about US$20,000 at 2005 prices), happiness will have little increase with extra income, ceteris paribus. This phenomenon is known as the diminishing marginal utility of income. This implies that an ever-growing economy does not improve the society’s happiness.

This is not to say that economic growth is absolutely unnecessary, but it should not be pursued under the circumstances that social harmony and economic stability are destroyed, or the global ecological system and world climate are jeopardized. Psychologists have found repeatedly that individuals who attach more importance to higher incomes generally are less happy and more vulnerable to other psychological ills than individuals who do not crave higher incomes. While higher income may raise happiness to some extent, human being’s emotional attachment to income and wealth may actually reduce one’s happiness.

Buddha advocates the middle way between asceticism and pursuit of material enjoyment. While income is essential for happiness, after the basic need has been met, inner peace and harmonious relationships contribute more to happiness than income does. Buddhist teaching provides an ideal solution to the happiness-income growth paradox.

Explanation

According to the Buddhist teaching, suffering is the consequence of wrongdoings such as continuous craving for material goods. The root cause of all wrongdoings is the attachment to one’s self. Theravada Buddhism teaches us that one’s body is simply the combination of four conditions—earth (representing bone and flesh etc), water (representing body fluid), fire (representing temperature) and wind (representing breath). In fact, there is no such ‘self’ as regarded by ordinary people.

Mahayana Buddhism points out that the entire universe including our environment and ourselves is just like a dream which has never occurred. Perfect understanding of this truth is called enlightenment. An enlightened person will naturally let go of self-interest act and will be absolutely altruistic. Therefore, the so-called ‘rational behavior’ targeted at self-interest in western economics is, on the contrary, considered ‘irrational’ according to the Buddhist viewpoint.

Solution

Search for true happiness was not only the motive of the Buddha to abandon his kingdom 2561 years ago, but also the motive of flourishing research of western economics in the past century. While western economists believed that people can attain happiness by getting more income, Buddha took a completely different approach to attain ultimate happiness. He first demonstrated it by relieving himself from all sufferings at the age of 30. Then He conducted teachings in the rest of his life to all sentient beings on how to attain ultimate happiness. By clearing away greed, anger, and ignorance from mind, one can get rid of all sufferings and attain true happiness.

Buddha advised us to train our behavior and mind through the three learnings, i.e., precepts, meditation (Samadhi) and wisdom(Prajñā). Abiding by precepts can help remove the root causes of future unpleasant consequences.

Meditation aims to settle one’s mind on proper thoughts so that improper thoughts are cleared away. For example, when we meditate, we can first observe our breathing in order to sharpen our concentration. Then we observe the constant changes of the body, feelings and thoughts. Through continuous practice, one can obtain the real experience and understanding about the concepts of impermanence, suffering and no-self. Desires and attachments will pass away gradually.

Wisdom helps us see through the truth of the universe. The universe is the reflection of our mind, just like in a mirror which all phenomena are empty in nature but appear because of karma. All these phenomena constantly and quickly change with our thoughts. Therefore, all sentient and insentient beings in the universe at any instant are the manifestation of one single thought of mind. All are one unity!

Buddha advised Mahayana Bodhisattvas to cultivate unconditional loving kindness and compassion by diligently helping all sentient beings to relieve from sufferings. This universal compassion is the key component of Bodhi Mind advocated by Mahayana Buddhism. By continuous serving the society and all sentient beings, one can gradually disengage the clinging to self and attain higher happiness.

Happiness level varies with levels of awakening and practice. Therefore, Buddhist teaching plays an important role in helping people identify true happiness and what to pursue. If the teaching of Buddhism is rightly spread, the value based on altruism will prevail and the happiness level of all social classes,the rich or the poor, will keep increasing.

Example

Getwell Electronic Company Ltd of Dongguan City in Guangdong province of China has made a successful attempt in promoting the altruism value. Starting from 2015, its board of directors adopted a so-called 51-25-24 dividend distribution scheme. That is, 51% of the company’s dividends were donated to an internal charity foundation where the funds were used to contribute to (i) the improvement of the company’s staff living standards such as free organic diet, (ii) the society’s charity work, and (iii) teaching of Buddhism and Chinese traditional ethics. The remaining 49% of the dividends are furthered divided by the staff and the owners of the company according to the 51:49 ratio. That is, 51% of the remaining 49%, or 25% of the total dividends, were given to the staff. The owners only received the last 24% of total dividends. By giving out the monetary rewards, the owners of the company became exemplary leaders of giving up their self-interest and to work mainly for the interest of their staff and the society. Consequently, staff members showed lots of initiatives and considered themselves as the owners of the company. Enjoying complimentary organic meals, staff members appreciated the genuine care and family love from the senior management team and became highly responsible, self-disciplined and motivated. Management costs were therefore substantially reduced. With this new dividend distribution scheme, Getwell has enjoyed a 50% rise in profits in 2016. This 51-25-24 dividend distribution scheme is now being copied by many companies in China. This case indicates that when the entrepreneur practices loving-kindness and compassion, all stakeholders, inside or outside of the company, benefit and become happier. Such an altruistic framework, once established, would generate a cost-efficient, harmonious and eco-friendly economy.

Conclusion

Economists have observed the paradox that higher income leads to little increase in happiness when the baseline income is overpassed. If income is unduly pursued, happiness will diminish in the end, let alone the deteriorating human relationship and natural environment. Buddhism advocates little desire and contentment, which is the ideal solution to the happiness decline problem. When one is engaged to compassion work and be rid of selfishness, one can attain higher level of inner happiness that does not depend on income. The society as a whole would have great happiness should the Buddhist teachings prevail.

(To be presented at United Nations Vesak Symposium, Colombo, Sri Lanka by Ven. Dr. Ding Hong, Chairperson of Ling-Feng Buddhist Education and Propagation Foundation, and Chief Master of Jue-Yuan Temple of Shanwei, Guangdong Province, China.)

Reference
Easterlin, Richard A.. 1974. “Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot?” In Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz, eds. Paul A. David and Melvin W. Reder. New York: Academic Press.
_________________________
阿彌陀佛
Amitabha



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#1930655 - 05/20/17 05:32 PM Re: 一場閑富貴,狠狠爭來,雖得還是失。 百歲好光陰,忙忙過了,縱壽亦為夭。~菜根譚 [Re: 文茂]
2xjilidl 離線
一元復始
註冊: 06/25/02
文章數: 1559
魯國的國君
還真用了孔老夫子做首相
只是孔老夫子,也是個不成才的人
沒有多久就換下來了
然後周遊列國討官做
還差點餲死
最後回歸到老家教書,每天吹大牛

孔老夫子是標準的讀書人的原型
幾千年後至今所有台灣的讀書人都一個樣子
說得一付好的治國理想
上台後不是無能就是污錢

任何國家的消失
都不是一個人有辦法改變的
_________________________
Unknown unknowns
Prior x=P(h=1|c=0),Post y=P(h=1|c=1),z=P(h=0|c=1)
P(h|c)=xy/(xy+z(1-x))
by Chunk
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#1930659 - 05/20/17 06:19 PM Re: 一場閑富貴,狠狠爭來,雖得還是失。 百歲好光陰,忙忙過了,縱壽亦為夭。~菜根譚 [Re: 2xjilidl]
文茂 離線
見龍在田
註冊: 01/15/14
文章數: 60
因為孔老夫子太重視品德
一國宰相若不能大度,統合上下,再有能力也無法發揮其所長.
縱使為大材亦非適得其位.成效必然不彰.

如果我是國君,我會拜他為師,職掌祭祀跟教育,專職培訓人材..因為品德要求需要從己身做起.以孔老夫子的個性,是相當適任的.

但制度上,我鐘情於法家,因為沒有制度,沒有準繩依歸,那政令必將模糊不定,執行率必然大受影響,所以為政者首在立信.以及制度上的建立.

能力是其次,只要上行下效,依法約束官員,縱使有才無德的[吳起]也需按章執法..

外交上大國環伺,小國實無本錢週旋於其間, 故開頭破題借兵以示其弱.向三國稱臣以互相制衡.

民富則國強,國強則軍盛.此乃必然之道理


如果魯國就是人的一生...若要民富則由己為先

當然每個人有選擇的權利.
若用心不正,用人不適其位.則時過境遷,虛度光陰罷了.
感嘆沒有任何意義....
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45~47歲 子年丑年寅年會發生甚麼事 而且跟另一半有關
by leonardoe314a
05/26/17 07:04 PM
四張命盤,猜猜誰「不是」同志
by 站長
05/26/17 03:13 PM
八字命例,大腸癌逝世
by 福哥命理天地
05/26/17 01:24 PM
是否今年能拿到專任教師的聘?
by Ipsa
05/26/17 12:48 PM
這個很好笑..
by 明潭釣叟
05/26/17 10:28 AM
請問感情、婚姻以及事業
by annann1221
05/26/17 10:06 AM
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